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Posted by on Mar 10, 2014 in blog, Neurosciences | 0 comments

Neurological Disorders

Neurological Disorders

 

Neurological disorders have increasingly become a common problem. According to the World Health Organization, neurological impairments and their accompanying behavioural problems have affected more than 450 million individuals worldwide as of 2010.

 

Vascular neurological disorders

Vascular disorders most commonly seen these days include:

  • Strokes
  • Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA)
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage (bleeding on the brain, between the brain and the tissues which cover the brain)
  • Subdural haemorrhage and haematoma (a pooling of blood which adds pressure to the brain)
  • Extradural haemorrhage (a rupture of blood usually caused by a skull fracture) seen especially in children and adolescents

 

Infectious disease-related neurological disorders

Infection is a primary threat to neurological condition, according to the World Health Organization. These disease-related conditions may begin in some part of the body, and eventually lead to neurological damage, disorder or death. The most commonly occurring infections of this magnitude include:

  • Meningitis: An infection in the brain and spinal cord as a result of viral or  bacterial infection leading to brain damage or death
  • Encephalitis: An inflammation in the brain
  • Polio: A communicable disease originating from fecal-oral contact that can ultimately cause paralysis
  • Epidural abscess: Accumulation of pus that is collected between the outer layer of the brain and down the spinal cord

 

Structural neurological disorders

Structural neurological disorders are those that result from traumatic injury to the skeletal, muscular, nervous or vascular systems. Conditions most often seen from this group include:

  • Tumours
  • Brain or spinal cord injury
  • Bell’s palsy (facial paralysis)
  • Cervical spondylosis: osteoarthritis and inflammation of the neck
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome: median nerve compression at the wrist
  • Peripheral neuropathy: damage to the peripheral nervous system
  • Guillian-Barre syndrome: an autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system

 

Functional neurological disorders

The functional neurological disorders are seemingly the most prevalent group. This group includes:

  • Headache and migraine
  • Epilepsy (seizure disorder)
  • Dizziness
  • Neuralgia (unexplained nerve pain)

 

Neurological disorders resulting from degenerative conditions

According to the World Health Organization, the neurological degenerative disorders are among the most expensive and talked-about group of disorders.

This group includes:

  • Parkinson’s disease: causes muscle rigidity, tremors, changes in gait and speech
  • Multiple sclerosis: a condition that causes change in sensation, muscle weakness, spasms and poor coordination
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: also called Lou Gehrig’s disease, which causes weakness and paralysis
  • Huntington’s disease: an inherited disease that causes jerky body movements, poor coordination and behavioural problems
  • Alzheimer’s disease: a progressive condition that causes memory loss, decision-making problems and behavioural problems

 

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