Significant improvements in the surgical approaches and management of diseases have been made in the last century since the advent of antibiotics and aseptic surgical techniques. A major revolution has happened in the last 25 years, as the focus has shifted to minimally invasive surgery and subsequently to robotic assisted surgery. The da Vinci system is by far the most successful surgical robot in use today. Apollo Hospitals take pride in housing this system of robotic surgery, which has led to success in many complicated cases.
The robotic surgical equipment has three parts.
Patient-side robotic cart with 4 arms manipulated by the surgeon (one to control the camera and three to manipulate instruments)
A machine that helps in providing view to other doctors and nurses, so they can observe the procedure
By looking inside the console, a surgeon is able to get a three-dimensional view of the patient’s internal organs, which is made possible with the help of an endoscopic camera with high clarity. It provides relief to the surgeons as well, as they are not required to stand over the patient for hours, bent in odd angles.
Surgical robotic systems can augment and extend the human capabilities of surgeons. The robot also reduces hand tremors and hence is more precise. Due to miniaturization and addition of the “wrist” to robotic endoscopic instruments, surgical robots have enabled procedures to be performed that are otherwise not possible with manually controlled endoscopic instruments.
It allows the surgeon to operate in increasingly smaller spaces, through increasingly smaller incisions, resulting in decreased morbidity and more rapid recovery time, translating into earlier discharge from hospital and earlier return to activity and work, hence reducing overall cost.
A robotic platform has multiple applications and can be used by various specialties to bring down the cost.
General/GI surgery: Whipple’s surgery, Nissen fundoplication, Heller myotomy, Esophegectomy
Urology: Radical prostatectomy, Partial nephrectomy, Radical cystectomy, Pyeloplasty
Cardiothoracic surgery: Coronary artery bypass, Mitral valve replacement, Atrial septal defect repair, Lung resection
Cardiology: Ablation for arrhythmias, Guided stent placement
Neurosurgery: Stereotactic brain surgeries, Biopsies, Tumour resection
Orthopaedics: Total knee and hip replacements, Ligament surgeries
Surgical Oncology: Abdominoperineal resection and Anterior resection for colorectal cancers
Gynaecology: Myomectomy for fibroids, Radical hysterectomy for tumours, Ovarian tumour removal
Radiosurgery: Cyberknife surgery